Reality, from virtual to augmented

Weiss, T.L., Bailenson, J.N., Bullock, K., Greenleaf, W. (2021). Chapter 17 – Reality, from virtual to augmented. In Godfrey, A., Stuart, S. (ed) Digital Health (pp. 275-303). Academic Press.


Virtual reality (VR) technology has existed for decades, and the promise for its groundbreaking applications to healthcare has been discussed for almost as long. Recent advances in computer technology and decreasing costs of VR hardware have now allowed this technology to become increasingly utilized in the medical and healthcare industries. Additionally, newer technologies such as augmented reality promise additional benefit to patients and clinicians. By creating immersive and realistic environments, these technologies can be used as medical education tools for clinicians and patients, visualization tools for surgical planning and intraoperative guidance, and therapeutic tools for a wide range of health problems.